There is a renewed interest in finding out what the votersreallythink. Times, Sunday Times (2016)Figures from Nationwideshowing that house prices had risenlastmonthadded to renewed confidenceyesterday. Times, Sunday Times (2016)Since then, though, he has struckfive times in four games and showed renewed vigour. The Sun (2016)You can ask them to shut up, of course, but they will only look incredulous and then carry right on with renewed vigour. Times, Sunday Times (2016)The next US president cannot afford to tune out their concerns, for they will reappear with renewed vigour next time. Times, Sunday Times (2016)Sales from our only grower are up a third and bossessay that has been helped by a renewed interest in Britishness, both at home and abroad. The Sun (2016)This has led to renewed confidence in the city. Times, Sunday Times (2016)Yet their second home win in a row is not their only reason for renewed optimism. The Sun (2009)This time of year can give us all a renewed enthusiasm. The Sun (2006)Unitedgo into the season with renewed optimism despite saying goodbye to some old favourites. The Sun (2011)But now the band have found a renewed enthusiasm. The Sun (2011)The renewed optimism was evident in official retail sales figures for last month. Times, Sunday Times (2014)The fear of decline has given way to renewed optimism. Times, Sunday Times (2013)Banks rose for the third day on renewed optimism about the recovery. The Sun (2010)There are fears that the renewed violence will lead to a surge in refugeesfleeing to Europe. Times, Sunday Times (2016)The renewed violence has claimed more than 70 lives. Times, Sunday Times (2009)Yet Swanseabegan the second period with renewed vigour. The Sun (2012)It's not just in terms of a renewed enthusiasm for interiorjungles. Times, Sunday Times (2014)There is no doubt a renewed vigour about Villa. Times, Sunday Times (2015)Large areas of London and other major towns went into lockdown yesterday amid fears of a renewed violence. The Sun (2011)His presence on the panel of judges has led to renewed interest from potentialstars and there was surge in applications for this series. Times, Sunday Times (2014)I can see in training there is a renewed confidence. The Sun (2013)That looks to be wise, given the potential for further growth amid the renewed enthusiasm for investment in gold. Times, Sunday Times (2006)Those affected may take up new activities or relationships, or show renewed interest in those which existed before the loss.Pearson, Althea Growing Through Loss and Grief (1994)It looks like he is getting there - and bagging only his second goal of the campaign is bound to give him renewed confidence. The Sun (2006)Much of the credit for the renewed confidence is being given to King Abdullah. Times, Sunday Times (2006)Policearrested 19 people for vandalism, accusinganarchists of plotting to cause renewed violence during the final. Times, Sunday Times (2014)He has fought back from a seriouskneeinjury and an uncertainfuture at Chelsea to find renewed confidence with England. The Sun (2010)One of the happier results of the Downton Abbey effect is a renewed interest in the history of paid domesticlabour in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The Times Literary Supplement (2014)
self-confidence and, thus, are more resistant to short-term interventions to change them. In addition, optimism and pessimism emphasize perceptions of controllability of the environment rather than the sense of personal agency to control the environment.
A concept similar to optimism has been described as healthy illusions (Taylor and Brown, 1988) or positive denial (Lazarus, 1979), which involves a slight distortion of reality in the positive direction. Such illusions can help sustain one's hopes of success, keep morale high, and lower anxiety (Hackett and Cassem, 1974). As Peterson and Bossio (1991) explain in relation to severe illnesses, the immediate denial of the severity of an illness allows individuals to face crises slowly, which helps their motivation to recover. However, if denial or illusion is too far removed from reality, it can get in the way of recovery and taking action to improve one's situation or performance.
Level of aspiration, first conceptualized in the 1930s within the scientific analysis of goal-striving behavior, is concerned with people's estimation of their subsequent performance prior to trying a task. An early investigator (Frank, 1935:119) defined it specifically as "the level of future performance in a familiar task which an individual, knowing his level of past performance in that task, explicitly undertakes to reach." Once a level of aspiration has been set, the individual performs, examines the discrepancy between the level of aspiration and the performance, and reacts with feelings of success or failure (depending on discrepancy). These reactions could lead to trying harder, leaving the activity altogether, or continuing with a readjusted level of aspiration (Lewin et al., 1944). Early investigations on levels of aspiration were the precursors to modern research on various cognitive aspects of goal-setting, self-appraisal, and feeling of satisfaction regarding relative success and failure. Much of the basis for current views on self-regulation in terms of self-monitoring, self-evaluation, and self-reaction can be found within the level-of-aspiration paradigm (see Bandura, 1982; Carver and Scheier, 1990).
The earlier research, most of which occurred in the 1930s and 1940s (see, e.g., Festinger, 1942; Frank, 1935, 1941; Lewin et al., 1944), tried to determine the factors that influence the fluctuations in a person's level of aspiration (e.g., success and failure of comparison groups) or studied how well personality traits correlated with the phenomenon. One general finding in relation to success and failure was that subjects raised their level of aspiration after success and lowered it after failure. However, Bandura has shown that this finding does not automatically occur in real-life tasks: "Having surpassed a demanding standard through laborious effort does not automatically lead people to raise their aspiration" (Bandura, 1986:348). Whether one raises one's level of aspiration or not depends more on one's level of task-specific self-confidence. This is the additional self-evaluation mechanism