Environmental History Bibliography Order

Environmental history is the study of human interaction with the natural world over time, emphasizing the active role nature plays in influencing human affairs and vice versa.

Environmental history emerged in the United States out of the environmental movement of the 1960s and 1970s, and much of its impetus still stems from present-day global environmental concerns.[1] The field was founded on conservation issues but has broadened in scope to include more general social and scientific history and may deal with cities, population or sustainable development. As all history occurs in the natural world, environmental history tends to focus on particular time-scales, geographic regions, or key themes. It is also a strongly multidisciplinary subject that draws widely on both the humanities and natural science.

The subject matter of environmental history can be divided into three main components.[2] The first, nature itself and its change over time, includes the physical impact of humans on the Earth's land, water, atmosphere and biosphere. The second category, how humans use nature, includes the environmental consequences of increasing population, more effective technology and changing patterns of production and consumption. Other key themes are the transition from nomadic hunter-gatherer communities to settled agriculture in the neolithic revolution, the effects of colonial expansion and settlements, and the environmental and human consequences of the industrial and technological revolutions.[3] Finally, environmental historians study how people think about nature - the way attitudes, beliefs and values influence interaction with nature, especially in the form of myths, religion and science.

Origin of name and early works[edit]

Main article: Roderick Nash

In 1967 Roderick Nash published "Wilderness and the American Mind", a work that has become a classic text of early environmental history. In an address to the Organization of American Historians in 1969 (published in 1970) Nash used the expression "environmental history",[4] although 1972 is generally taken as the date when the term was first coined.[5] The 1959 book by Samuel P. Hays, Conservation and the Gospel of Efficiency: The Progressive Conservation Movement, 1890-1920, while being a major contribution to American political history, is now also regarded as a founding document in the field of environmental history. Hays is Professor Emeritus of History at the University of Pittsburgh.[6]

Historiography[edit]

Brief overviews of the historiography of environmental history have been given by J. R. McNeill,[7]Richard White,[8] and J. Donald Hughes.[9] In 2014 Oxford University Press published a volume of 25 essays called The Oxford Handbook of Environmental History.

Definition[edit]

There is no universally accepted definition of environmental history. In general terms it is a history that tries to explain why our environment is like it is and how humanity has influenced its current condition, as well as commenting on the problems and opportunities of tomorrow.[10]Donald Worster's widely quoted 1988 definition states that environmental history is the "interaction between human cultures and the environment in the past".[11]

In 2001, J. Donald Hughes defined the subject as the “study of human relationships through time with the natural communities of which they are a part in order to explain the processes of change that affect that relationship”.[12] and, in 2006, as "history that seeks understanding of human beings as they have lived, worked and thought in relationship to the rest of nature through the changes brought by time".[13] "As a method, environmental history is the use of ecological analysis as a means of understanding human history...an account of changes in human societies as they relate to changes in the natural environment”.[12] Environmental historians are also interested in "what people think about nature, and how they have expressed those ideas in folk religions, popular culture, literature and art”.[12] In 2003, J. R. McNeill defined it as "the history of the mutual relations between humankind and the rest of nature".[7]

Subject matter[edit]

Traditional historical analysis has over time extended its range of study from the activities and influence of a few significant people to a much broader social, political, economic, and cultural analysis. Environmental history further broadens the subject matter of conventional history. In 1988, Donald Worster stated that environmental history “attempts to make history more inclusive in its narratives”[14] by examining the “role and place of nature in human life”,[15] and in 1993, that “Environmental history explores the ways in which the biophysical world has influenced the course of human history and the ways in which people have thought about and tried to transform their surroundings”.[16] The interdependency of human and environmental factors in the creation of landscapes is expressed through the notion of the cultural landscape. Worster also questioned the scope of the discipline, asking: "We study humans and nature; therefore can anything human or natural be outside our enquiry?"[17]

Environmental history is generally treated as a subfield of history. But some environmental historians challenge this assumption, arguing that while traditional history is human history – the story of people and their institutions,[18] "humans cannot place themselves outside the principles of nature".[19] In this sense, they argue that environmental history is a version of human history within a larger context, one less dependent on anthropocentrism (even though anthropogenic change is at the center of its narrative).[20]

Dimensions[edit]

J. Donald Hughes responded to the view that environmental history is "light on theory" or lacking theoretical structure by viewing the subject through the lens of three "dimensions": nature and culture, history and science, and scale.[21] This advances beyond Worster's recognition of three broad clusters of issues to be addressed by environmental historians although both historians recognize that the emphasis of their categories might vary according to the particular study[22] as, clearly, some studies will concentrate more on society and human affairs and others more on the environment.

Themes[edit]

Several themes are used to express these historical dimensions. A more traditional historical approach is to analyse the transformation of the globe’s ecology through themes like the separation of man from nature during the neolithic revolution, imperialism and colonial expansion, exploration, agricultural change, the effects of the industrial and technological revolution, and urban expansion. More environmental topics include human impact through influences on forestry, fire, climate change, sustainability and so on. According to Paul Warde, “the increasingly sophisticated history of colonization and migration can take on an environmental aspect, tracing the pathways of ideas and species around the globe and indeed is bringing about an increased use of such analogies and ‘colonial’ understandings of processes within European history.[23] The importance of the colonial enterprise in Africa, the Caribbean and Indian Ocean has been detailed by Richard Grove.[3] Much of the literature consists of case-studies targeted at the global, national and local levels.[24]

Scale[edit]

Although environmental history can cover billions of years of history over the whole Earth, it can equally concern itself with local scales and brief time periods.[25] Many environmental historians are occupied with local, regional and national histories.[26] Some historians link their subject exclusively to the span of human history – "every time period in human history"[19] while others include the period before human presence on Earth as a legitimate part of the discipline. Ian Simmons's Environmental History of Great Britain covers a period of about 10,000 years. There is a tendency to difference in time scales between natural and social phenomena: the causes of environmental change that stretch back in time may be dealt with socially over a comparatively brief period.[27]

Although at all times environmental influences have extended beyond particular geographic regions and cultures, during the 20th and early 21st centuries anthropogenic environmental change has assumed global proportions, most prominently with climate change but also as a result of settlement, the spread of disease and the globalization of world trade.[28]

History[edit]

The questions of environmental history date back to antiquity, including [29]Hippocrates, the father of medicine, who asserted that different cultures and human temperaments could be related to the surroundings in which peoples lived in Airs, Waters, Places.[30] Scholars as varied as Ibn Khaldun and Montesquieu found climate to be a key determinant of human behavior.[31] During the Enlightenment, there was a rising awareness of the environment and scientists addressed themes of sustainability via natural history and medicine.[32] However, the origins of the subject in its present form are generally traced to the 20th century.

In 1929 a group of French historians founded the journal Annales, in many ways a forerunner of modern environmental history since it took as its subject matter the reciprocal global influences of the environment and human society. The idea of the impact of the physical environment on civilizations was espoused by this Annales School to describe the long term developments that shape human history[17] by focusing away from political and intellectual history, toward agriculture, demography, and geography. Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie, a pupil of the Annales School, was the first to really embrace, in the 1950s, environmental history in a more contemporary form.[33] One of the most influential members of the Annales School was Lucien Febvre (1878–1956), whose book A Geographical Introduction to History is now a classic in the field.

The most influential empirical and theoretical work in the subject has been done in the United States where teaching programs first emerged and a generation of trained environmental historians is now active.[23] In the United States environmental history as an independent field of study emerged in the general cultural reassessment and reform of the 1960s and 1970s along with environmentalism, "conservation history",[34] and a gathering awareness of the global scale of some environmental issues. This was in large part a reaction to the way nature was represented in history at the time, which “portrayed the advance of culture and technology as releasing humans from dependence on the natural world and providing them with the means to manage it [and] celebrated human mastery over other forms of life and the natural environment, and expected technological improvement and economic growth to accelerate”.[35] Environmental historians intended to develop a post-colonial historiography that was "more inclusive in its narratives".[14]

Moral and political inspiration[edit]

Moral and political inspiration to environmental historians has come from American writers and activists such as Henry Thoreau, John Muir, Aldo Leopold, and Rachel Carson. Environmental history "frequently promoted a moral and political agenda although it steadily became a more scholarly enterprise".[14] Early attempts to define the field were made in the United States by Roderick Nash in “The State of Environmental History” and in other works by frontier historians Frederick Jackson Turner, James Malin, and Walter Prescott Webb, who analyzed the process of settlement. Their work was expanded by a second generation of more specialized environmental historians such as Alfred Crosby, Samuel P. Hays, Donald Worster, William Cronon, Richard White, Carolyn Merchant, J. R. McNeill, Donald Hughes, and Chad Montrie in the United States and Paul Warde, Sverker Sorlin, Robert A. Lambert, T.C. Smout, and Peter Coates in Europe.

British Empire[edit]

Although environmental history was growing rapidly after 1970, it only reached historians of the British Empire in the 1990s.[36][37][38] Gregory Barton argues that the concept of environmentalism emerged from forestry studies, and emphasizes the British imperial role in that research. He argues that imperial forestry movement in India around 1900 included government reservations, new methods of fire protection, and attention to revenue-producing forest management. The result eased the fight between romantic preservationists and laissez-faire businessmen, thus giving the compromise from which modern environmentalism emerged.[39]

In recent years numerous scholars cited by James Beattie have examined the environmental impact of the Empire.[40] Beinart and Hughes argue that the discovery and commercial or scientific use of new plants was an important concern in the 18th and 19th centuries. The efficient use of rivers through dams and irrigation projects was an expensive but important method of raising agricultural productivity. Searching for more efficient ways of using natural resources, the British moved flora, fauna and commodities around the world, sometimes resulting in ecological disruption and radical environmental change. Imperialism also stimulated more modern attitudes toward nature and subsidized botany and agricultural research.[41] Scholars have used the British Empire to examine the utility of the new concept of eco-cultural networks as a lens for examining interconnected, wide-ranging social and environmental processes.[42]

Current practice[edit]

In the United States the American Society for Environmental History was founded in 1975 while the first institute devoted specifically to environmental history in Europe was established in 1991, based at the University of St. Andrews in Scotland. In 1986, the Dutch foundation for the history of environment and hygiene Net Werk was founded and publishes four newsletters per year. In the UK the White Horse Press in Cambridge has, since 1995, published the journal Environment and History which aims to bring scholars in the humanities and biological sciences closer together in constructing long and well-founded perspectives on present day environmental problems and a similar publication Tijdschrift voor Ecologische Geschiedenis (Journal for Environmental History) is a combined Flemish-Dutch initiative mainly dealing with topics in the Netherlands and Belgium although it also has an interest in European environmental history. Each issue contains abstracts in English, French and German. In 1999 the Journal was converted into a yearbook for environmental history. In Canada the Network in Canadian History and Environment facilitates the growth of environmental history through numerous workshops and a significant digital infrastructure including their website and podcast.[43]

Communication between European nations is restricted by language difficulties. In April 1999 a meeting was held in Germany to overcome these problems and to co-ordinate environmental history in Europe. This meeting resulted in the creation of the European Society for Environmental History in 1999. Only two years after its establishment, ESEH held its first international conference in St. Andrews, Scotland. Around 120 scholars attended the meeting and 105 papers were presented on topics covering the whole spectrum of environmental history. The conference showed that environmental history is a viable and lively field in Europe and since then ESEH has expanded to over 400 members and continues to grow and attracted international conferences in 2003 and 2005. In 1999 the Centre for Environmental History was established at the University of Stirling. Some history departments at European universities are now offering introductory courses in environmental history and postgraduate courses in Environmental history have been established at the Universities of Nottingham, Stirling and Dundee and more recently a Graduierten Kolleg was created at the University of Göttingen in Germany.[44] In 2009, the Rachel Carson Center for Environment and Society (RCC), an international, interdisciplinary center for research and education in the environmental humanities and social sciences, was founded as a joint initiative of Munich's Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität and the Deutsches Museum, with the generous support of the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research.[45] The Environment & Society Portal (environmentandsociety.org) is the Rachel Carson Center's open access digital archive and publication platform.[46]

Related disciplines[edit]

Environmental history prides itself in bridging the gap between the arts and natural sciences although to date the scales weigh on the side of science. A definitive list of related subjects would be lengthy indeed and singling out those for special mention a difficult task. However, those frequently quoted include, historical geography, the history and philosophy of science, history of technology and climate science. On the biological side there is, above all, ecology and historical ecology, but also forestry and especially forest history, archaeology and anthropology. When the subject engages in environmental advocacy it has much in common with environmentalism.

With increasing globalization and the impact of global trade on resource distribution, concern over never-ending economic growth and the many human inequities environmental history is now gaining allies in the fields of ecological and environmental economics.[47][48]

Engagement with sociological thinkers and the humanities is limited but cannot be ignored through the beliefs and ideas that guide human action. This has been seen as the reason for a perceived lack of support from traditional historians.[23]

Issues[edit]

The subject has a number of areas of lively debate. These include discussion concerning: what subject matter is most appropriate; whether environmental advocacy can detract from scholarly objectivity; standards of professionalism in a subject where much outstanding work has been done by non-historians; the relative contribution of nature and humans in determining the passage of history; the degree of connection with, and acceptance by, other disciplines - but especially mainstream history. For Paul Warde the sheer scale, scope and diffuseness of the environmental history endeavour calls for an analytical toolkit "a range of common issues and questions to push forward collectively" and a "core problem". He sees a lack of "human agency" in its texts and suggest it be written more to act: as a source of information for environmental scientists; incorporation of the notion of risk; a closer analysis of what it is we mean by "environment"; confronting the way environmental history is at odds with the humanities because it emphasises the division between "materialist, and cultural or constructivist explanations for human behaviour".[49]

Global sustainability[edit]

Main article: Sustainability

Many of the themes of environmental history inevitably examine the circumstances that produced the environmental problems of the present day, a litany of themes that challenge global sustainability including: population, consumerism and materialism, climate change, waste disposal, deforestation and loss of wilderness, industrial agriculture, species extinction, depletion of natural resources, invasive organisms and urban development.[50] The simple message of sustainable use of renewable resources is frequently repeated and early as 1864 George Perkins Marsh was pointing out that the changes we make in the environment may later reduce the environments usefulness to humans so any changes should be made with great care[51] - what we would nowadays call enlightened self-interest. Richard Grove has pointed out that "States will act to prevent environmental degradation only when their economic interests are threatened".[52]

Advocacy[edit]

Main article: Advocacy

It is not clear whether environmental history should promote a moral or political agenda. The strong emotions raised by environmentalism, conservation and sustainability can interfere with historical objectivity: polemical tracts and strong advocacy can compromise objectivity and professionalism. Engagement with the political process certainly has its academic perils[53] although accuracy and commitment to the historical method is not necessarily threatened by environmental involvement: environmental historians have a reasonable expectation that their work will inform policy-makers.[54]

Declensionist narratives[edit]

Narratives of environmental history tend to be declensionist, that is, accounts of progressive decline under human activity.[citation needed]

Presentism and culpability[edit]

Main article: Presentism (literary and historical analysis)

Under the accusation of "presentism" it is sometimes claimed that, with its genesis in the late 20th century environmentalism and conservation issues, environmental history is simply a reaction to contemporary problems, an "attempt to read late twentieth century developments and concerns back into past historical periods in which they were not operative, and certainly not conscious to human participants during those times".[55] This is strongly related to the idea of culpability. In environmental debate blame can always be apportioned, but it is more constructive for the future to understand the values and imperatives of the period under discussion so that causes are determined and the context explained.[56]

Environmental determinism[edit]

Further information: Environmental determinism and Cultural determinism

For some environmental historians "the general conditions of the environment, the scale and arrangement of land and sea, the availability of resources, and the presence or absence of animals available for domestication, and associated organisms and disease vectors, that makes the development of human cultures possible and even predispose the direction of their development"[57] and that "history is inevitably guided by forces that are not of human origin or subject to human choice".[58] This approach has been attributed to American environmental historians Webb and Turner[59] and, more recently to Jared Diamond in his book Guns, Germs, and Steel, where the presence or absence of disease vectors and resources such as plants and animals that are amenable to domestication that may not only stimulate the development of human culture but even determine, to some extent, the direction of that development. The claim that the path of history has been forged by environmental rather than cultural forces is referred to as environmental determinism while, at the other extreme, is what may be called cultural determinism. An example of cultural determinism would be the view that human influence is so pervasive that the idea of pristine nature has little validity - that there is no way of relating to nature without culture.[60]

Methodology[edit]

Main article: Historical method

Useful guidance on the process of doing environmental history has been given by Donald Worster,[61] Carolyn Merchant,[62] William Cronon[63] and Ian Simmons.[64] Worster's three core subject areas (the environment itself, human impacts on the environment, and human thought about the environment) are generally taken as a starting point for the student as they encompass many of the different skills required. The tools are those of both history and science with a requirement for fluency in the language of natural science and especially ecology.[65] In fact methodologies and insights from a range of physical and social sciences is required, there seeming to be universal agreement that environmental history is indeed a multidisciplinary subject.

Some key works[edit]

  • Chakrabarti, Ranjan (ed), Does Environmental History Matter: Shikar, Subsistence, Sustenance and the Sciences (Kolkata: Readers Service, 2006)
  • Chakrabarti, Ranjan (ed.), Situating Environmental History (New Delhi: Manohar, 2007)
  • Cronon, William (ed), Uncommon Ground: Toward Reinventing Nature (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1995)
  • Dunlap, Thomas R., Nature and the English Diaspora: Environment and History in the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand . (NewYork/Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999)
  • Glacken, Clarence, Traces on the Rhodian Shore: Nature and Culture in Western Thought From Ancient Times to the End of the Nineteenth Century (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1967)
  • Griffiths, Tom and Libby Robin (eds.), Ecology and Empire: The Environmental History of Settler Societies. (Keele: Keele University Press, 1997)
  • Grove, Richard, Green Imperialism: Colonial Expansion, Tropical Island Edens and the Origins of Environmentalism, 1600-1860. (Cambridge University Press, 1995)
  • Hughes, J.D., An Environmental History of the World: Humankind's Changing Role in the Community of Life (Oxford: Routledge, 2001)
  • Hughes, J.D., "Global Environmental History: The Long View", Globalizations, Vol. 2 No. 3, 2005, 293-208.
  • LaFreniere, Gilbert F., 2007. The Decline of Nature: Environmental History and the Western Worldview, Academica Press, Bethesda, MD ISBN 978-1933146409
  • MacKenzie, John M., Imperialism and the Natural World. (Manchester University Press, 1990)
  • McCormick, John, Reclaiming Paradise: The Global Environmental Movement. (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989)
  • Rajan, Ravi S., Modernizing Nature: Forestry and Imperial Eco-Development, 1800-1950 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006)
  • Redclift, Michael R., Frontier: Histories of Civil Society and Nature (Cambridge, MA.: The MIT Press, 2006).
  • Stevis, Dimitris, "The Globalizations of the Environment", Globalizations, Vol. 2 No. 3, 2005, 323-334.
  • Williams, Michael, Deforesting the Earth: From Prehistory to Global Crisis. An Abridgement. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006)
  • White, Richard, The Organic Machine: The Remaking of the Columbia River. (Hill and Wang, 1996)
  • Worster, Donald, Nature's Economy: A Study of Ecological Ideals. (Cambridge University Press, 1977)
  • Zeilinga de Boer, Jelle and Donald Theodore Sanders, Volcanoes in Human History, The Far-reaching Effects of Major Eruptions. (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002) ISBN 978-0691118383

Seminal works by region[edit]

In 2004 a theme issue of Environment and History 10(4) provided an overview of environmental history as practiced in Africa, the Americas, Australia, New Zealand, China and Europe as well as those with global scope. J. Donald Hughes (2006) has also provided a global conspectus of major contributions to the environmental history literature.

  • George Perkins Marsh, Man and Nature; or, Physical Geography as Modified by Human Action, ed. David Lowenthal (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1965 [1864])

Africa[edit]

  • Adams, Jonathan S. and Thomas McShane, The Myth of Wild Africa: Conservation without Illusion (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996) 266p; covers 1900 to 1980s
  • Anderson, David; Grove, Richard. Conservation in Africa: People, Policies & Practice (1988), 355pp
  • Bolaane, Maitseo. "Chiefs, Hunters & Adventurers: The Foundation of the Okavango/Moremi National Park, Botswana". Journal of Historical Geography. 31.2 (April 2005): 241-259.
  • Carruthers, Jane. "Africa: Histories, Ecologies, and Societies," Environment and History, 10 (2004), pp. 379–406;
  • Cock, Jacklyn and Eddie Koch (eds.), Going Green: People, Politics, and the Environment in South Africa (Cape Town: Oxford University Press, 1991)
  • Dovers, Stephen, Ruth Edgecombe, and Bill Guest (eds.), South Africa's Environmental History: Cases and Comparisons (Athens: Ohio University Press, 2003)
  • Green Musselman, Elizabeth, “Plant Knowledge at the Cape: A Study in African and European Collaboration,” International Journal of African Historical Studies, Vol. 36, 2003, 367-392
  • Jacobs, Nancy J., Environment, Power and Injustice: A South African History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003)
  • Maathai, Wangari, Green Belt Movement: Sharing the Approach and the Experience (New York: Lantern Books, 2003)
  • McCann, James, Green Land, Brown Land, Black Land: An Environmental History of Africa, 1800-1990 (Portsmouth: Heinemann, 1999)
  • Showers, Kate B. Imperial Gullies: Soil Erosion and Conservation in Lesotho (2005) 346pp
  • Steyn, Phia, "The lingering environmental impact of repressive governance: the environmental legacy of the apartheid-era for the new South Africa", Globalizations, 2#3 (2005), 391-403

Antarctica[edit]

  • Pyne, S.J., The Ice: A Journey to Antarctica. (University of Iowa Press, 1986).

North and South America[edit]

Further information: Bibliography of Canada § Geography and environment

  • Boyer, Christopher R. Political Landscapes: Forests, Conservation, and Community in Mexico. (Durham: Duke University Press 2015.)
  • Cosby, Patrick H. "Leviathan in the Tropics: A postcolonial environmental history of the Papaloapan Projects in Mexico." PhD diss. University of Florida 2011.
  • Dean, Warren. With Broadax and Firebrand: The Destruction of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995)
  • Dorsey, Kurkpatrick. The Dawn of Conservation Diplomacy: U.S.-Canadian Wildlife Protection Treaties in the Progressive Era. (Washington: University of Washington Press, 1998)
  • Funes Monzote, Reinaldo. From Rainforest to Cane Field in Cuba: An Environmental History since 1492. (2008)
  • Matthews, Andrew S. Instituting Nature: Authority, Expertise, and Power in Mexican Forests. (Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, 2011.)
  • Melville, Elinor. A Plague of Sheep: Environmental Consequences of the Conquest of Mexico. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994)
  • Miller, Shawn William. An Environmental History of Latin America. (2007)
  • Miller, Shawn William. Fruitless Trees: Portuguese Conservation and Brazil's Colonial Timber. Stanford: Stanford University Press 2000.
  • Noss, Andrew and Imke Oetting. "Hunter Self-Monitoring by the Izoceño -Guarani in the Bolivian Chaco". Biodiversity & Conservation. 14.11 (2005): 2679-2693.
  • Raffles, Hugh, et al. "Further Reflections on Amazonian Environmental History: Transformations of Rivers and Streams". Latin American Research Review. Vol. 38, Number 3, 2003: 165–187
  • Santiago, Myrna I. The Ecology of Oil: Environment, Labor, and the Mexican Revolution, 1900-1938. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2006.
  • Simonian, Lane. Defending the Land of the Jaguar: A History of Conservation in Mexico. (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1995)
  • Wakild, Emily. Revolutionary Parks: Conservation, Social Justice, and Mexico's National Parks, 1910-1940. Tucson: University of Arizona Press 2012.
  • Wynn, Graeme. Canada and Arctic North America: An Environmental History. (Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2007)

United States[edit]

  • Allitt, Patrick. A Climate of Crisis: America in the Age of Environmentalism (2014), wide-ranging scholarly history since 1950s excerpt
  • Andrews, Richard N.L., Managing the Environment, Managing Ourselves: A History of American Environmental Policy (Yale University Press, 1999)
  • Bates, J. Leonard. "Fulfilling American Democracy: The Conservation Movement, 1907 to 1921", The Mississippi Valley Historical Review, (1957) 44#1 pp. 29–57. in JSTOR
  • Brinkley, Douglas G.The Wilderness Warrior: Theodore Roosevelt and the Crusade for America, (2009) excerpt and text search
  • Carson, Rachel, Silent Spring (Cambridge, Mass. : Riverside Press, 1962)
  • Cawley, R. McGreggor. Federal Land, Western Anger: The Sagebrush Rebellion and Environmental Politics (1993), on conservatives
  • Cronon, William, Changes in the Land: Indians, Colonists and the Ecology of New England (New York: Hill and Wang, 1983)
  • Cronon, William, Nature's Metropolis: Chicago and the Great West (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1991)
  • Flippen, J. Brooks. Nixon and the Environment (2000).
  • Gottlieb, Robert, Forcing the Spring: The Transformation of the American Environmental Movement (Washington: Island Press, 1993)
  • Hays, Samuel P. Conservation and the Gospel of Efficiency (1959), on Progressive Era.
  • Hays, Samuel P. Beauty, Health, and Permanence: Environmental Politics in the United States, 1955–1985 (1987), the standard scholarly history
  • Hays, Samuel, Conservation and the Gospel of Efficiency: The Progressive Conservation Movement1890-1920 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1959)
    • Hays, Samuel P. A History of Environmental Politics since 1945 (2000), shorter standard history
  • King, Judson. The Conservation Fight, From Theodore Roosevelt to the Tennessee Valley Authority (2009)
  • Merchant, Carolyn. American environmental history: An introduction (Columbia University Press, 2007).
  • Merchant, Carolyn. The Columbia guide to American environmental history (Columbia University Press, 2012).
  • Merchant, Carolyn. The Death of Nature: Women, Ecology and the Scientific Revolution (New York: Harper & Row, 1980)
  • Nash, Roderick. The Rights of Nature: A History of Environmental Ethics (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1989)
  • Nash, Roderick. Wilderness and the American Mind, (4th ed. 2001), the standard intellectual history
  • Rice, James D. Nature and History in the Potomac Country: From Hunter-Gatherers to the Age of Jefferson (2009)
  • Sale, Kirkpatrick. The Green Revolution: The American Environmental Movement, 1962-1999 (New York: Hill & Wang, 1993)
  • Scheffer, Victor B. The Shaping of Environmentalism in America (1991).
  • Stradling, David (ed), Conservation in the Progressive Era: Classic Texts (Washington: University of Washington Press, 2004), primary sources
  • Strong, Douglas H. Dreamers & Defenders: American Conservationists. (1988) online edition, good biographical studies of the major leaders
  • Turner, James Morton, "The Specter of Environmentalism": Wilderness, Environmental Politics, and the Evolution of the New Right. The Journal of American History 96.1 (2009): 123-47 online at History Cooperative
  • Unger, Nancy C., Beyond Nature's Housekeepers: American Women in Environmental History. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2012)
  • Worster, Donald, Under Western Skies: Nature and History in the American West (Oxford University Press, 1992)
  • Melosi, Martin V., Coping with Abundance: Energy and Environment in Industrial America (Temple University Press, 1985)
  • Steinberg, Ted, Down to Earth: Nature's Role in American History (Oxford University Press, 2002)
  • Rothman, Hal K. (1998). The Greening of a Nation? Environmentalism in the United States since 1945. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace College Publishers. ISBN 0155028553. 

Asia[edit]

  • Boomgaard, Peter, ed. Paper Landscapes: Explorations in the Environment of Indonesia. (Leiden: KITLV Press, 1997)
  • Burke III, Edmund, "The Coming Environmental Crisis in the Middle East: A Historical Perspective, 1750-2000 CE" (April 27, 2005). UC World History Workshop. Essays and Positions from the World History Workshop. Paper 2.
  • David, A. & Guha, R. (eds) 1995. Nature, Culture, Imperialism: Essays on the Environmental History of South Asia. Delhi, India: Oxford University Press.
  • Elvin, Mark & Ts'ui-jung Liu (eds.), Sediments of Time: Environment and Society in Chinese History (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998)
  • Gadgil, M. and R. Guha, This Fissured Land: An Ecological History of India (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993)
  • Grove, Richard, Vinita Damodaran, and Satpal Sangwan (eds.) Nature & the Orient: The Environmental History of South and Southeast Asia (Oxford University Press, 1998)
  • Hill, Christopher V., South Asia: An Environmental History (Santa Barbara: ABC-Clio, 2008)
  • Menzie, Nicholas, Forest and Land Management in Late Imperial China (London, Macmillan Press. 1994)
  • Maohong, Bao, "Environmental History in China", Environment and History, Volume 10, Number 4, November 2004, pp. 475–499
  • Marks, R. B., Tigers, rice, silk and silt. Environment and economy in late imperial South China (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998)
  • Perdue, Peter C., "Lakes of Empire: Man and Water in Chinese History”, Modern China, 16 (January 1990): 119 - 29
  • Shapiro, Judith, Mao's War against Nature: Politics and the Environment in Revolutionary China (New York: Cambridge University Press. 2001) ISBN 978-0521786805
  • Shiva, Vandana, Stolen Harvest: the Hijacking of the Global Food Supply (Cambridge MA: South End Press, 2000), ISBN 0-89608-608-9
  • Tal, Alon, Pollution in a Promised Land: An Environmental History of Israel (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002)
  • Totman, Conrad D., The Green Archipelago: Forestry in Preindustrial Japan (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989)
  • Totman, Conrad D., Pre-industrial Korea and Japan in Environmental Perspective (Leiden: Brill, 2004)
  • Ts'ui-jung Liu, Sediments of Time: Environment and Society in Chinese History (Cambridge University Press, 1998)
  • Tull, Malcolm, and A. R. Krishnan. "Resource Use and Environmental Management in Japan, 1890-1990", in: J.R. McNeill (ed), Environmental History of the Pacific and the Pacific Rim ( Aldershot Hampshire: Ashgate Publishing, 2001)
  • Yok-shiu Lee and Alvin Y. So, Asia's Environmental Movements: Comparative Perspectives (Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 1999)

Australasia[edit]

  • Carron, L.T., A History of Forestry in Australia (Canberra, 1985).
  • Dargavel, John (ed.), Australia and New Zealand Forest Histories. Short Overviews, Australian Forest History Society Inc. Occasional Publications, No. 1 (Kingston: Australian Forest History Society, 2005)
  • Dovers, Stephen (ed), Essays in Australian Environmental History: Essays and Cases (Oxford: OUP, 1994).
  • Dovers, Stephen(ed.), Environmental History and Policy: Still Settling Australia (South Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 2000).
  • Flannery, Tim, The Future Eaters, An Ecological History of the Australian Lands and People (Sydney: Reed Books,1994) ISBN 0-8021-3943-4
  • Garden, Don, Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific. An Environmental History (Santa Barbara: ABC-Clio, 2005)
  • Pyne, Stephen, Burning Bush: A Fire History of Australia (New York, Henry Holt, 1991).
  • Robin, Libby, Defending the Little Desert: The Rise of Ecological Consciousness in Australia (Melbourne: MUP, 1998)
  • Robin, Libby, The Flight of the Emu: A Hundred Years of Australian Ornithology 1901-2001, (Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 2000)
  • Robin, Libby, How a Continent Created a Nation (Sydney: University of New South Wales Press, 2007)
  • Smith, Mike, Hesse, Paul (eds.), 23 Degrees S: Archaeology and Environmental History of the Southern Deserts (Canberra: National Museum of Australia Press, 2005)
  • Young, Ann R.M, Environmental Change in Australia since 1788 (Oxford University Press, 2000)

Europe[edit]

  • Brimblecombe, Peter and Christian Pfister, The Silent Countdown: Essays in European Environmental History (Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1993)
  • Crosby, Alfred W., Ecological Imperialism: The Biological Expansion of Europe, 900-1900 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986)
  • Christensen, Peter, Decline of Iranshahr: Irrigation and Environments in the History of the Middle East, 500 B.C. to 1500 A.D (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1993)
  • Ditt, Karl, 'Nature Conservation in England and Germany, 1900-1970: Forerunner of Environmental Protection?', Contemporary European History 5:1-28.
  • Hughes, J. Donald, Pan's Travail: Environmental Problems of the Ancient Greeks and Romans (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins, 1994)
  • Hughes, J. Donald, The Mediterranean. An Environmental History (Santa Barbara: ABC-Clio, 2005)
  • Lancaster, Julia H., Marat Fidarov. An Environmental History of the Russian North Caucasus (New York: HHN Media, 2009)
  • Martí Escayol, Maria Antònia. La construcció del concepte de natura a la Catalunya moderna (Barcelona: Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 2004)[66]
  • Netting, Robert, Balancing on an Alp: Ecological Change and Continuity in a Swiss Mountain Community (Cambridge University Press, 1981)
  • Parmentier, Isabelle, dir., Ledent, Carole, coll., La recherche en histoire de l'environnement : Belgique, Congo, Rwanda, Burundi, Namur, 2010 (Coll. Autres futurs).
  • Stephen J. Pyne, Vestal Fire. An Environmental History, Told through Fire, of Europe and Europe's Encounter with the World (Seattle, University of Washington Press, 1997)
  • Richards, John F., The Unending Frontier: Environmental History of the Early Modern World (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003)
  • Whited, Tamara L. (ed.), Northern Europe. An Environmental History (Santa Barbara: ABC-Clio, 2005)

Australia, New Zealand & Oceania[edit]

  • Bennett, Judith Ann, Natives and Exotics: World War II and Environment in the Southern Pacific (Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2009)
  • Bennett, Judith Ann, Pacific Forest: A History of Resource Control and Contest in Solomon Islands, c. 1800-1997 (Cambridge and Leiden: White Horse Press and Brill, 2000)
  • Bridgman, H. A., "Could climate change have had an influence on the Polynesian migrations?", Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 41(1983) 193-206.
  • Brooking, Tom and Eric Pawson, Environmental Histories of New Zealand (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002).
  • Carron, L.T., A History of Forestry in Australia (Canberra, 1985).
  • Cassels, R., "The Role of Prehistoric Man in the Faunal Extinctions of New Zealand and other Pacific Islands", in Martin, P. S. and Klein, R. G. (eds.) Quaternary Extinctions: A Prehistoric Revolution (Tucson, The University of Arizona Press, 1984)
  • D'Arcy, Paul, The People of the Sea: Environment, Identity, and History in Oceania (Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2006)
  • Dargavel, John (ed.), Australia and New Zealand Forest Histories. Short Overviews, Australian Forest History Society Inc. Occasional Publications, No. 1 (Kingston: Australian Forest History Society, 2005)
  • Dovers, Stephen (ed), Essays in Australian Environmental History: Essays and Cases (Oxford: OUP, 1994).
  • Dovers, Stephen(ed.), Environmental History and Policy: Still Settling Australia (South Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 2000).
  • Flannery, Tim, The Future Eaters, An Ecological History of the Australian Lands and People (Sydney: Reed Books,1994).
  • Garden, Don, Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific. An Environmental History (Santa Barbara: ABC-Clio, 2005)
  • Hughes, J. Donald, "Nature and Culture in the Pacific Islands", Leidschrift, 21 (2006) 1, 129-144.
  • Hughes, J. Donald, "Tahiti, Hawaii, New Zealand: Polynesian impacts on Island Ecosystems", in: An Environmental History of the World. Humankind"s Changing Role in the Community of Life, (London & New York, Routledge, 2002)
  • James Beattie, "Environmental Anxiety in New Zealand, 1840-1941: Climate Change, Soil Erosion, Sand Drift, Flooding and Forest Conservation", Environment and History 9(2003): 379-392
  • Knight, Catherine, New Zealand's Rivers: An Environmental History (Christchurch: Canterbury University Press, 2016).
  • McNeill, John R., "Of Rats and Men. A Synoptic Environmental History of the Island Pacific", Journal of World History, Vol. 5, no. 2, 299-349
  • Pyne, Stephen, Burning Bush: A Fire History of Australia (New York, Henry Holt, 1991).
  • Robin, Libby, Defending the Little Desert: The Rise of Ecological Consciousness in Australia (Melbourne: MUP, 1998)
  • Robin, Libby, How a Continent Created a Nation (Sydney: University of New South Wales Press, 2007)
  • Robin, Libby, The Flight of the Emu: A Hundred Years of Australian Ornithology 1901-2001, (Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 2000)
  • Smith, Mike, Hesse, Paul (eds.), 23 Degrees S: Archaeology and Environmental History of the Southern Deserts (Canberra: National Museum of Australia Press, 2005)
  • Star, Paul, "New Zealand Environmental History: A Question of Attitudes", Environment and History 9(2003): 463-475
  • Young, Ann R.M, Environmental Change in Australia since 1788 (Oxford University Press, 2000)
  • Young, David, Our Islands, Our Selves: A History of Conservation in New Zealand ( Dunedin: Otago University Press, 2004)

United Kingdom[edit]

  • Beinart, William and Lotte Hughes, Environment and Empire (Oxford, 2007).
  • Clapp, Brian W., An Environmental History of Britain Since the Industrial Revolution (London, 1994). excerpt
  • Grove, Richard, Green Imperialism: Colonial Expansion, Tropical Island Edens and the Origins of Environmentalism, 1600–1860 (Cambridge, 1994).
  • Lambert, Robert, Contested Mountains (Cambridge, 2001).
  • Mosley, Stephen, The Chimney of the World: A History of Smoke Pollution in Victorian and Edwardian Manchester (White Horse, 2001).
  • Porter, Dale, The Thames Embankment: Environment, Technology, and Society in Victorian London, (University of Akron, 1998).
  • Simmonds, Ian G., Environmental History of Great Britain from 10,000 Years Ago to the Present (Edinburgh, 2001).
  • Sheail, John, An Environmental History of Twentieth-Century Britain (Basingstoke, 2002).
  • Thorsheim, Peter, Inventing Pollution: Coal, Smoke, and Culture in Britain since 1800 (Ohio University, 2006).

Future[edit]

Environmental history, like all historical studies, shares the hope that through an examination of past events it may be possible to forge a more considered future. In particular a greater depth of historical knowledge can inform environmental controversies and guide policy decisions.

The subject continues to provide new perspectives, offering cooperation between scholars with different disciplinary backgrounds and providing an improved historical context to resource and environmental problems. There seems little doubt that, with increasing concern for our environmental future, environmental history will continue along the path of environmental advocacy from which it originated as “human impact on the living systems of the planet bring us no closer to utopia, but instead to a crisis of survival[67] with key themes being population growth, climate change, conflict over environmental policy at different levels of human organization, extinction, biological invasions, the environmental consequences of technology especially biotechnology, the reduced supply of resources - most notably energy, materials and water. Hughes comments that environmental historians “will find themselves increasingly challenged by the need to explain the background of the world market economy and its effects on the global environment. Supranational instrumentalities threaten to overpower conservation in a drive for what is called sustainable development, but which in fact envisions no limits to economic growth”.[68] Hughes also notes that "environmental history is notably absent from nations that most adamantly reject US, or Western influences".[69]

The city of Machu Picchu was constructed c. 1450 AD, at the height of the Inca Empire. It has commanding views down two valleys and a nearly impassable mountain at its back. There is an ample supply of spring water and enough land for a plentiful food supply. The hillsides leading to it have been terraced to provide farmland for crops, reduce soil erosion, protect against landslides, and create steep slopes to discourage potential invaders.
General view of Funkville in 1864, Oil Creek, Pennsylvania, USA
The 77 km long Panama Canal, opened in 1914, connects the Caribbean Sea to the Pacific Ocean, replacing a long and treacherous shipping route passing via the Drake Passage and Cape Horn at the tip of South America. Construction was plagued by problems, including disease (particularly malaria and yellow fever) and landslides. By the time the canal was completed, a total of 27,500 French and American workmen are estimated to have died.
Achieving sustainability will enable the Earth to continue supporting human life as we know it. Blue Marble NASA composite images: 2001 (left), 2002 (right)
Recording historical events
African landscape: Lesotho
Banaue rice terraces in the Philippines where traditional landraces have been grown for thousands of years
Polynesian outrigger canoe
Old and new human uses of the atmosphere

Bibliography of American Environmental History

Compiled by Mark Stoll

Index

  • General
  • Human Impact on the Environment
  • Biography
  • History of Ecology
  • History of Ideas about Nature
  • Literature, the Arts, and Nature
  • Conservation and Environmentalism
  • Women and the Environment
  • Race and Environmental Justice
  • Environmental Organizations
  • Energy, Oil, and Nuclear Issues
  • Pollution, Pesticides, and Toxic Waste
  • Capitalism, Labor, and Economics
  • Parks, Monuments, and Tourism
  • Forests and National Forests

General

Boyden, Stephen. Biohistory: The Interplay Between Human Society and the Biosphere. Parkridge, N.J.; Parthenon Publishing Group, 1992.

Connelly, Matthew James. Fatal Misconception: The Struggle to Control World Population. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2008.

Eisenberg, Evan. Ecology of Eden. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1998.

Elmore, Bartow J. Citizen Coke: The Making of Coca-Cola Capitalism. New York: Norton, 2015.

Fiege, Mark. The Republic of Nature: An Environmental History of the United States. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2012.

Freund, Daniel. American Sunshine: Diseases of Darkness and the Quest for Natural Light. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012.

Hoff, Derek S. The State and the Stork: The Population Debate and Policy Making in US History. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2012.

Isenberg, Andrew C., ed. The Oxford Handbook of Environmental History. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014.

Linnér, Björn-Ola. The Return of Malthus: Environmentalism and Post-War Population-Resource Crises. Isle of Harris: White Horse Press, 2003.

Mayhew, Robert J. Malthus: The Life and Legacies of an Untimely Prophet. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2014.

Miller, Char, ed. The Atlas of U.S. and Canadian Environmental History. New York: Routledge, 2003.

Montrie, Chad. Making a Living: Work and Environment in the United States. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2008.

Reuss, Martin, and Stephen H. Cutcliffe, eds. The Illusory Boundary: Environment and Technology in History. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2010.

Riney-Kehrberg, Pamela. The Nature of Childhood: An Environmental History of Growing Up in America Since 1865. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2014.

Ritvo, Harriet. Noble Cows and Hybrid Zebras: Essays on Animals and History. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2010.

Russell, Edmund. Evolutionary History: Uniting History and Biology to Understand Life on Earth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011.

Weart, Spencer R. The Discovery of Global Warming. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2003.

Whitney, Gordon G. From Coastal Wilderness to Fruited Plain: A History of Environmental Change in Temperate North America from 1500 to the Present. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

Worster, Donald. Shrinking the Earth: The Rise and Decline of American Abundance. New York: Oxford University Press, 2016.

Human Impact on the Environment

Anderson, Jennifer L. Mahogany: The Costs of Luxury in Early America. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2012.

Pyne, Stephen J. Fire in America: A Cultural History of Wildland and Rural Fire. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1982.

Pyne, Stephen J. Between Two Fires: A Fire History of Contemporary America. Tucson: The University of Arizona Press, 2015.

Steinberg, Ted. Acts of God: The Unnatural History of Natural Disaster in America. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Steinberg, Ted. Down to Earth: Nature's Role in American History. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Steinberg, Theodore. Slide Mountain, or, The Folly of Owning Nature. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995.

INDIANS

Anderson, Kat, ed. Before the Wilderness: Environmental Management by Native Californians. Menlo Park: Ballena Press, 1993.

Anderson, M. Kat. Tending the Wild: Native American Knowledge and the Management of California's Natural Resources. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005.

Binnema, Theodore. Common and Contested Ground: A Human and Environmental History of the Northwestern Plains. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2001.

Burnham, Philip. Indian Country, God's Country: Native Americans and the National Parks. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 2000.

Catton, Theodore. Inhabited Wilderness: Indians, Eskimos and National Parks in Alaska. Albuquerque : University of New Mexico Press, 1997

Chamberlain, Kathleen P. Under Sacred Ground: A History of Navajo Oil, 1922-1982. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2000.

Fixico, Donald L. The Invasion of Indian Country in the Twentieth Century: American Capitalism and Tribal National Resources. Niwot: University Press of Colorado, 1998.

Harkin, Michael Eugene, and David Rich Lewis, eds. Native Americans and the Environment: Perspectives on the Ecological Indian. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2007.

Hausdoerffer, John. Catlin's Lament: Indians, Manifest Destiny, and the Ethics of Nature. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2009.

Hughes, J. Donald. American Indian Ecology. El Paso: Texas Western Press, 1983.

Keller, Robert H., and Michael F. Turek. American Indians & National Parks. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1998.

Krech, Shepard. The Ecological Indian: Myth and History. New York: W.W. Norton, 1999.

Lentz, David L., ed. Imperfect Balance: Landscape Transformations in the Precolumbian Americas. New York: Columbian University Press, 2000.

Mann, Charles C. 1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus. New York: Knopf, 2005.

Spence, Mark David. Dispossessing the Wilderness; Indian Removal and the Making of the National Parks. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Shurts, John. Indian Reserved Water Rights: The Winters Doctrine in Its Social and Legal Context, 1880s-1930s. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2000.

Weisiger, Marsha L. Dreaming of Sheep in Navajo Country. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2009.

West, Elliott. The Contested Plains: Indians, Goldseekers, & the Rush to Colorado. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1998.

White, Richard. The Roots of Dependency: Subsistence, Environment, and Social Change among the Choctaws, Pawnees, and Navajos. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1983.

COLONIAL

Anderson, Virginia DeJohn. Creatures of Empire: How Domestic Animals Transformed Early America. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Cronon, William. Changes in the Land: Indians, Colonists, and the Ecology of New England. New York: Hill and Wang, 1983.

Crosby, Alfred W. The Columbian Exchange; Biological and Cultural Consequences of 1492 Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Pub. Co., 1972.

Crosby, Alfred W. Ecological Imperialism: The Biological Expansion of Europe. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1986.

Donahue, Brian. The Great Meadow: Farmers and the Land in Colonial Concord. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004.

Irving, Sarah. Natural Science and the Origins of the British Empire. London: Pickering & Chatto, 2008.

Lewis, Andrew J. A Democracy of Facts: Natural History in the Early Republic. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011.

Morgan, M. J. Land of Big Rivers: French and Indian Illinois, 1699-1778. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 2010.

Rice, James D. Nature & History in the Potomac Country: From Hunter-Gatherers to the Age of Jefferson. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2009.

WATER

Anfinson, John O. The River We Have Wrought: A History of the Upper Mississippi. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2003.

Archer, Kenna Lang. Unruly Waters: A Social and Environmental History of the Brazos River. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2015.

Brooks, Karl Boyd. Public Power, Private Dams: The Hells Canyon High Dam Controversy. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2006.

Carrels, Peter. Uphill against Water: The Great Dakota Water War. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1999.

DeBuys, William. Salt Dreams: Land & Water in Low-Down California. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1999.

Fiege, Mark. Irrigated Eden: The Making of an Agricultural Landscape in the American West. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1999.

Gumprecht, Blake. The Los Angeles River: Its Life, Death, and Possible Rebirth. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.

Hall, G. Emlen. High and Dry: The Texas-New Mexico Struggle for the Pecos River. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2002.

Henshaw, Robert E., ed. Environmental History of the Hudson River: Human Uses That Changed the Ecology, Ecology That Changed Human Uses. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2011.

Hoornbeek, John A. Water Pollution Policies and the American States: Runaway Bureaucracies or Congressional Control? Albany: State University of New York Press, 2011.

Kupel, Douglas E. Fuel for Growth: Water and Arizona's Urban Environment. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2003.

Littlefield, Douglas R. Conflict on the Rio Grande: Water and the Law, 1879-1939. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2008.

MacDonnell, Lawrence J. From Reclamation to Sustainability: Water, Agriculture, and the Environment in the American West. Niwot: University Press of Colorado, 1999.

McCool, Daniel. River Republic: The Fall and Rise of America's Rivers. New York Columbia University Press, 2012.

Melosi, Martin V. Precious Commodity: Providing Water for America's Cities. Pittsburgh, Pa.: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2011.

Miller, Char, ed. Fluid Arguments: Five Centuries of Western Water Conflict. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2000.

Morris, Christopher. The Big Muddy: An Environmental History of the Mississippi and Its Peoples from Hernando de Soto to Hurricane Katrina. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.

Opie, John. Ogallala:Water for a Dry Land. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1993.

Orsi, Jared. Hazardous Metropolis: Flooding and Urban Ecology in Los Angeles. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004.

Pearson, Byron E. Still the Wild River Runs: Congress, the Sierra Club, and the Fight to Save Grand Canyon. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2002.

Pisani, Donald J. From the Family Farm to Agribusiness: The Irrigation Crusade in California and the West, 1850-1931. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984.

Pisani, Donald J. To Reclaim a Divided West: Water, Law, and Public Policy, 1848-1902. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1992.

Pisani, Donald J. Water and American Government: The Reclamation Bureau, National Water Policy, and the West, 1902-1935. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002.

Pisani, Donald J. Water, Land, and Law in the West: The Limits of Public Policy, 1850-1920. Lawrence, Kan.: University Press of Kansas, 1996.

Reisner, Marc. Cadillac Desert: The American West and Its Disappearing Water. New York: Viking Penguin, Inc., 1986.

Schneiders, Robert Kelley. Big Sky Rivers: The Yellowstone and Upper Missouri. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2003.

Schneiders, Robert Kelley. Unruly River: Two Centuries of Change Along the Missouri. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1999.

Schorr, David. The Colorado Doctrine: Water Rights, Corporations, and Distributive Justice on the American Frontier. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012.

Soll, David. Empire of Water: An Environmental and Political History of the New York City Water Supply. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2013.

Steinberg, Theodore. Nature Incorporated: Industrialization and the Waters of New England. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Stine, Jeffrey K. Mixing the Waters: Environment, Politics, and the Building of the Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway. Akron, OH: University of Akron Press, 1993.

Sturgeon, Stephen C. The Politics of Western Water: The Congressional Career of Wayne Aspinall. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2002.

Summitt, April R. Contested Waters: An Environmental History of the Colorado River. Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2013.

Teisch, Jessica B. Engineering Nature: Water, Development, & the Global Spread of American Environmental Expertise. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2011.

Vileisis, Ann. Discovering the Unknown Landscape: A History of America's Wetlands. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1997.

Ward, Evan R. Border Oasis: Water and the Political Ecology of the Colorado River Delta, 1940-1975. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2003.

Welky, David. The Thousand-Year Flood: The Ohio-Mississippi Disaster of 1937. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011.

White, Richard. The Organic Machine. New York: Hill and Wang, 1995

Whiteley, John M., Helen M. Ingram, and Richard Warren Perry. Water, Place, and Equity. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2008.

Willoughby, Lynn. Flowing through Time: A History of the Lower Chattahoochee River. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1999.

Worster, Donald. Rivers of Empire: Water, Aridity, and the Growth of the American West. New York: Pantheon, 1985.

Zeisler-Vralsted, Dorothy. Rivers, Memory, and Nation-Building: A History of the Volga and Mississippi Rivers. New York: Berghahn, 2015.

FISH AND WILDLIFE

Arnold, David F. The Fishermen's Frontier: People and Salmon in Southeast Alaska. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2008.

Bogue, Margaret Beattie. Fishing the Great Lakes: An Environmental History, 1783-1933. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2000.

Brown, Jen Corrinne. Trout Culture: How Fly Fishing Forever Changed the Rocky Mountain West. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2015.

Chiang, Connie Y. Shaping the Shoreline: Fisheries and Tourism on the Monterey Coast. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2008.

Coleman, Jon T. Vicious: Wolves and Men in America. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004.

Czech, Brian, and Paul R. Krausman. The Endangered Species Act: History, Conservation Biology and Public Policy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001.

Doughty, Robin W. Wildlife and Man in Texas: Environmental Change and Conservation. College Station: Texas A & M University Press, 1983.

Dunlap, Thomas R. Saving America's Wildlife. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988.

Flores, Dan L. Coyote America: A Natural and Supernatural History. New York: Basic Books, 2016.

Isenberg, Andrew C. The Destruction of the Bison: An Environmental History, 1750-1920. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Jones, Karen R. Wolf Mountains: A History of Wolves Along the Great Divide. Calgary: University of Calgary Press, 2002.

Keiner, Christine. The Oyster Question: Scientists, Watermen, and the Maryland Chesapeake Bay Since 1880. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2010.

Langston, Nancy. Where Land & Water Meet: A Western Landscape Transformed. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2003.

Lichatowich, Jim. Salmon Without Rivers: A History of the Pacific Salmon Crisis. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1999.

McEvoy, Arthur F. The Fisherman's Problem: Ecology and Law in the California Fisheries, 1850-1980. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1986.

Nielsen, John. Condor: To the Brink and Back—the Life and Times of One Giant Bird. New York: HarperCollins, 2006.

Petersen, Shannon. Acting for Endangered Species: The Statutory Ark. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2002.

Taylor, Joseph E. Making Salmon: An Environmental History of the Northwest Fisheries Crisis. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1999.

Quintero Toro, Camilo. Birds of Empire, Birds of Nation: A History of Science, Economy, and Conservation in United States-Colombia Relations. Bogotá, Colombia: Universidad de los Andes, 2012.

Sawyer, R. K. Texas Market Hunting: Stories of Waterfowl, Game Laws, and Outlaws. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2013.

Van Nuys, Frank, Varmints and Victims: Predator Control in the American West. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2015.

Wadewitz, Lissa K. The Nature of Borders: Salmon, Boundaries, and Bandits on the Salish Sea. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2012.

Walters, Mark Jerome. Seeking the Sacred Raven: Politics and Extinction on a Hawaiian Island. Washington: Island Press/Shearwater Books, 2006.

AGRICULTURE AND FOOD
(See also WATER)

Anderson, J. L. Industrializing the Corn Belt: Agriculture, Technology, and Environment, 1945-1972. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 2009.

Beeman, Randal S., and James A. Pritchard. A Green and Permanent Land: Ecology and Agriculture in the Twentieth Century. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2001.

Brown, Dona. Back to the Land: The Enduring Dream of Self-Sufficiency in Modern America. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2011.

Cohen, Benjamin R. Notes from the Ground: Science, Soil, and Society in the American Countryside. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009.

Conkin, Paul Keith. A Revolution Down on the Farm: The Transformation of American Agriculture Since 1929. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2008.

Duffin, Andrew P. Plowed Under: Agriculture & Environment in the Palouse. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2007.

Evans, Sterling. Bound in Twine: The History and Ecology of the Henequen-Wheat Complex for Mexico and the American and Canadian Plains, 1880–1950. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2007.

 Fitzgerald, Deborah. Every Farm a Factory: The Industrial Ideal in American Agriculture. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003.

Hurt, R. Douglas. The Dust Bowl: An Agricultural and Social History. Chicago: Nelson-Hall, 1981.

MacLennan, Carol A. Sovereign Sugar: Industry and Environment in Hawai'i. Honolulu: University of Hawaii, 2014.

O'Sullivan, Robin. American Organic: A Cultural History of Farming, Gardening, Eating, and Shopping. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2015.

Pauly, Philip J. Fruits and Plains: The Horticultural Transformation of America. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2007.

Sackman, Douglas. Orange Empire: California and the Fruits of Eden. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004.

Smith-Howard, Kendra. Pure and Modern Milk: An Environmental History Since 1900. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014.

Stoll, Steven. Larding the Lean Earth: Soil and Society in Nineteenth-Century America. New York: Hill & Wang, 2002.

Vileisis, Ann. Kitchen Literacy: How We Lost Knowledge of Where Food Comes From and Why We Need to Get It Back. Washington: Island Press, 2008.

URBAN

Abbott, Carl. Greater Portland: Urban Life and Landscape in the Pacific Northwest. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2001.

Bamberg, Angelique. Chatham Village: Pittsburgh's Garden City. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2011.

Booker, Matthew Morse. Down by the Bay: San Francisco's History between the Tides. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013.

Bramwell, Lincoln. Wilderburbs: Communities on Nature's Edge. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2014.

Brechin, Gray. Imperial San Francisco: Urban Power, Earthly Ruin. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999.

Bullard,  Robert D., Glenn S. Johnson, and Angel O. Torres, eds. Sprawl City: Race, Politics, and Planning in Atlanta. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 2000.

Burnstein, Daniel Eli. Next to Godliness: Confronting Dirt and Despair in Progressive Era New York City. Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 2006.

Buzbee, William W. Fighting Westway: Environmental Law, Citizen Activism, and the Regulatory War That Transformed New York City. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2014.

Craig E. Colton, ed. Transforming New Orleans and Its Environs: Centuries of Change. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2002.

Davis, Mike. Ecology of Fear: Los Angeles and the Imagination of Disaster. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1998.

Deverell, William, and Greg Hise, eds. Land of Sunshine: An Environmental History of Metropolitan Los Angeles. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2005.

Dieterich-Ward, Allen. Beyond Rust: Metropolitan Pittsburgh and the Fate of Industrial America. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2016.

Dreyfus, Philip J. Our Better Nature: Environment and the Making of San Francisco. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2008.

Elkind, Sarah S. How Local Politics Shape Federal Policy: Business, Power, and the Environment in Twentieth-Century Los Angeles. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2011.

Falck, Zachary J. S. Weeds: An Environmental History of Metropolitan America. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2010.

Fisher, Colin. Urban Green: Nature, Recreation, and the Working Class in Industrial Chicago. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2015.

Greene, Ann Norton. Horses at Work: Harnessing Power in Industrial America. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2008.

Gutfreund, Owen D. Twentieth-Century Sprawl: Highways and the Reshaping of the American Landscape. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Hurley, Andrew. Environmental Inequalities: Class, Race, and Industrial Pollution in Gary, Indiana, 1945-1980. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995.

Isenberg, Andrew C., ed. The Nature of Cities: Culture, Landscape, and Urban Space. Rochester: University of Rochester Press, 2006.

Karvonen, Andrew. Politics of Urban Runoff: Nature, Technology, and the Sustainable City. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2011.

Kelman, Ari. A River and Its City: The Nature of Landscape in New Orleans. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003.

Klingle, Matthew W. Emerald City: An Environmental History of Seattle. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2007.

Light, Jennifer S. The Nature of Cities: Ecological Visions and the American Urban Professions, 1920-1960. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2009.

Logan, Michael F. Desert Cities: The Environmental History of Phoenix and Tucson. Pittsburgh, Pa: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2006.

Longhurst, James Lewis. Bike Battles: A History of Sharing the American Road. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2015.

McNeur, Catherine. Taming Manhattan: Environmental Battles in the Antebellum City. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2014.

McShane, Clay, and Joel A. Tarr. The Horse in the City: Living Machines in the Nineteenth Century. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007.

Melosi, Martin V. Effluent America: Cities, Industry, Energy, and the Environment. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2002.

Melosi, Martin V., and Joseph A. Pratt, eds. Energy Metropolis: An Environmental History of Houston and the Gulf Coast. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, June 2007.

Melosi, Martin V. Garbage in the Cities: Refuse, Reform, and the Environment: 1880-1980. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1981.

Melosi, Martin V. The Sanitary City: Urban Infrastructure in America from Colonial Times to the Present. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000.

Melosi, Martin V. Precious Commodity: Providing Water for America's Cities. Pittsburgh, Pa: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2011.

Miller, Char, ed. On the Border: An Environmental History of San Antonio. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2002.

Miller, Char, ed. Cities and Nature in the American West. Reno: University of Nevada Press, 2010.

Mitman, Gregg. Breathing Space: How Allergies Shape Our Lives and Landscapes. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2007.

Platt, Harold L. Shock Cities: The Environmental Transformation and Reform of Manchester and Chicago. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005.

Sanders, Jeffrey C. Seattle and the Roots of Urban Sustainability: Inventing Ecotopia. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2010.

Soll, David. Empire of Water: An Environmental and Political History of the New York City Water Supply. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2013.

Stephenson, B. R. Visions of Eden: Environmentalism, Urban Planning, and City Building in St. Petersburg, Florida, 1900-1995. Columbus, 1997.

Stradling, David. Smokestacks and Progressives: Environmentalists, Engineers and Air Quality in America, 1881-1951. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.

Stradling, David, and Richard Stradling. Where the River Burned: Carl Stokes and the Struggle to Save Cleveland. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2015.

Tarr, Joel A., ed. Devastation and Renewal: An Environmental History of Pittsburgh and Its Region. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2004.

Taylor, Dorceta E. The Environment and the People in American Cities, 1600s-1900s: Disorder, Inequality, and Social Change. Durham: Duke University Press, 2009.

VanderMeer, Philip R. Desert Visions and the Making of Phoenix, 1860-2009. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2010.

Wells, Christopher W. Car Country: An Environmental History. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2012.

WAR AND THE ENVIRONMENT

Biggs, David A. Quagmire: Nation-Building and Nature in the Mekong Delta. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2010.

Brady, Lisa M. War Upon the Land: Military Strategy and the Transformation of Southern Landscapes During the American Civil War. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2012.

Drake, Brian Allen, ed. The Blue, the Gray, and the Green: Toward an Environmental History of the Civil War. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2015.

Gowdy-Wygant, Cecilia. Cultivating Victory: The Women's Land Army and the Victory Garden Movement. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2013.

Meier, Kathryn Shively. Nature's Civil War: Common Soldiers and the Environment in 1862 Virginia. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2013.

Martini, Edwin A., ed. Proving Grounds: Militarized Landscapes, Weapons Testing, and the Environmental Impact of U.S. Bases. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2015.

NEW ENGLAND AND MIDWEST

Andersen, Tom. This Fine Piece of Water: An Environmental History of Long Island Sound. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002.

Bennett, Dean B. The Wilderness from Chamberlain Farm: A Story of Hope for the American Wild. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 2001.

Borrelli, Peter. Stellwagen: The Making and Unmaking of a National Marine Sanctuary. Hanover, N.H.: University Press of New England, 2009.

Campanella, Thomas J. Republic of Shade: New England and the American Elm. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003.

Cumbler, John T. Cape Cod: An Environmental History of a Fragile Ecosystem. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2014.

Cumbler, John T. Reasonable Use: The People, the Environment, and the State, New England, 1790-1930. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Donahue, Brian. The Great Meadow: Farmers and the Land in Colonial Concord. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004.

Foster, David R., and John D. Aber, eds. Forests in Time: The Environmental Consequences of 1,000 Years of Change in New England. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004.

Heasley, Lynne. A Thousand Pieces of Paradise: Landscape and Property in the Kickapoo Valley. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2005.

Hutchins, Zachary McLeod. Inventing Eden: Primitivism, Millennialism, and the Making of New England. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.

Johnson, Christopher. This Grand & Magnificent Place: The Wilderness Heritage of the White Mountains. Durham, N.H.: University of New Hampshire Press, 2006.

Judd, Richard William. Second Nature: An Environmental History of New England. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2014.

Maher, Neil M., ed. New Jersey's Environment: Past, Present, and Future. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 2006.

Manuel, Jeffrey T. Taconite Dreams: The Struggle to Sustain Mining on Minnesota's Iron Range, 1915-2000. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2015.

Maynard, W. Barksdale. Walden Pond: A History. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

McKenzie, Matthew G. Clearing the Coastline: The Nineteenth-Century Ecological & Cultural Transformation of Cape Cod. Hanover: University Press of New England, 2010.

Merchant, Carolyn. Ecological Revolutions: Nature, Gender, and Science in New England. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1989.

Pastore, Christopher L. Between Land and Sea: The Atlantic Coast and the Transformation of New England. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2014.

Rawson, Michael. Eden on the Charles: The Making of Boston. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2010.

Ryden, Kent C. Landscape with Figures: Nature & Culture in New England. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 2001.

Stroud, Ellen. Nature Next Door: Cities and Trees in the American Northeast. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2012.

THE SOUTH

Boer, Tycho de. Nature, Business, and Community in North Carolina's Green Swamp. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2008.

Boyd, William. The Slain Wood: Papermaking and Its Environmental Consequences in the American South. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2015.

Brown, Margaret Lynn. The Wild East: A Biography of the Great Smoky Mountains. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2000.

Burns, Shirley Stewart. Bringing Down the Mountains: The Impact of Mountaintop Removal Surface Coal Mining on Southern West Virginia Communities, 1970-2004. Morgantown: West Virginia University Press, 2007.

Carter, Mason C., Robert C. Kellison, and R. Scott Wallinger. Forestry in the U.S. South: A History. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2016.

Cowdrey, Albert E. This Land, This South: An Environmental History. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1983.

Curtin, Philip D., Grace S. Brush, and George W. Fisher, eds. Discovering the Chesapeake: The History of an Ecosystem. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001.

Davis, Jack E., and Raymond O. Arsenault, eds. Paradise Lost? The Environmental History of Florida. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2005.

Davis, Donald Edward. Where There Are Mountains: An Environmental History of the Southern Appalachians. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2000.

Earley, Lawrence S. Looking for Longleaf: The Fall and Rise of an American Forest. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004.

Gregg, Sara M. Managing the Mountains: Land Use Planning, the New Deal, and the Creation of a Federal Landscape in Appalachia. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2010.

Hall, Randal L. Mountains on the Market: Industry, the Environment, and the South. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2012.

Hofstra, Warren R. The Planting of New Virginia: Settlement and Landscape in the Shenandoah Valley. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004.

Hollander, Gail M. Raising Cane in the 'Glades: The Global Sugar Trade and the Transformation of Florida. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008.

Howell, Benita J., ed. Culture, Environment, and Conservation in the Appalachian South. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2002.

Kelman, Ari. A River and Its City: The Nature of Landscape in New Orleans. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003.

Kirby, Jack Temple. Mockingbird Song: Ecological Landscapes of the South. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2006.

Lewis, Ronald L. Transforming the Appalachian Countryside: Railroads, Deforestation, and Social Change in West Virginia, 1880-1920. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998.

Manganiello, Christopher J. Southern Water, Southern Power: How the Politics of Cheap Energy and Water Scarcity Shaped a Region. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2015.

Marshall, Suzanne. "Lord, We're Just Trying to Save Your Water": Environmental Activism and Dissent in the Appalachian South. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2002.

Maysilles, Duncan. Ducktown Smoke: The Fight Over One of the South's Greatest Environmental Disasters. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2011.

McCally, David. The Everglades: An Environmental History. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1999.

McIver, Stuart. Death in the Everglades: The Murder of Guy Bradley, America's First Martyr to Environmentalism. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2003.

McNeill, John Robert. Mosquito Empires: Ecology and War in the Greater Caribbean, 1620-1914. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

Miller, James J. An Environmental History of Northeast Florida. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1998.

Mittlefehldt, Sarah. Tangled Roots: The Appalachian Trail and American Environmental Politics. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2013.

Montrie, Chad. To Save the Land and People: A History of Opposition to Surface Coal Mining in Appalachia. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003.

Nelson, Megan Kate. Trembling Earth: A Cultural History of the Okefenokee Swamp. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2005.

Newfont, Kathryn. Blue Ridge Commons: Environmental Activism and Forest History in Western North Carolina. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2012.

Outland, Robert B., III. Tapping the Pines: The Naval Stores Industry in the American South. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2004.

Poole, Leslie Kemp. Saving Florida: Women's Fight for the Environment in the Twentieth Century. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2015.

Rice, James D. Nature & History in the Potomac Country: From Hunter-Gatherers to the Age of Jefferson. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2009.

Saikku, Mikko. This Delta, This Land: An Environmental History of the Yazoo-Mississippi Floodplain. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2005.

Silver, Timothy. A New Face on the Countryside: Indians, Colonists, and Slaves in the South Atlantic Forests, 1500-1800. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Silver, Timothy. Mount Mitchell and the Black Mountains: An Environmental History of the Highest Peaks in Eastern America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003.

Stewart, Mart A. "What Nature Suffers to Groe": life, labor, and landscape on the Georgia coast, 1680-1920. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1996.

Stine, Jeffrey K. Mixing the Waters: Environment, Politics, and the Building of the Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway. Akron, OH: University of Akron Press, 1993.

Sutter, Paul. Let Us Now Praise Famous Gullies: Providence Canyon and the Soils of the South. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2015.

Swanson, Drew A. A Golden Weed: Tobacco and Environment in the Piedmont South. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2014.

Swanson, Drew A. Remaking Wormsloe Plantation: The Environmental History of a Lowcountry Landscape. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2012.

Way, Albert G. Conserving Southern Longleaf: Herbert Stoddard and the Rise of Ecological Land Management. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2011.

THE WEST AND GREAT PLAINS

Abbott, Carl. Greater Portland: Urban Life and Landscape in the Pacific Northwest. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2001.

Amundson, Michael A. Yellowcake Towns: Uranium Mining Communities in the American West. Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2002.

Beesley, David. Crow's Range: An Environmental History of the Sierra Nevada. Reno: University of Nevada Press, 2004.

Binnema, Theodore. Common and Contested Ground: A Human and Environmental History of the Northwestern Plains. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2001.

Booker, Matthew Morse. Down by the Bay: San Francisco's History between the Tides. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013.

Bunting, Robert. The Pacific Raincoast: Environment and Culture in an American Eden, 1778-1900. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1997.

Coates, Peter A. The Trans-Alaska Pipeline Controversy: Technology, Conservation, and the Frontier. Cranbury: Lehigh University Press, 1991.

Courtwright, Julie. Prairie Fire: A Great Plains History. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2011.

Cronon, William. Nature's Metropolis: Chicago and the Great West. New York: W.W. Norton and Co., 1991.

Cronon, William, George Miles, and Jay Gitlin, eds. Under an Open Sky: Rethinking America's Western Past. New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1992.

Cunfer, Geoff. On The Great Plains: Agriculture and Environment. College Station: Texas A & M Press, 2005.

Curtis, Kent A. Gambling on Ore: The Nature of Metal Mining in the United States, 1860-1910. Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2013.

DeBuys, William. Enchantment and Exploitation: The Life and Hard Times of a New Mexico Mountain Range. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1985.

DeBuys, William Eno, and Alex Harris. River of Traps: A Village Life. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press, 1990.

Duffin, Andrew P. Plowed Under: Agriculture & Environment in the Palouse. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2007.

Edgington, Ryan H. Range Wars: The Environmental Contest for White Sands Missile Range. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2014.

Farmer, Jared. On Zion's Mount: Mormons, Indians, and the American Landscape. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 2008.

Flores, Dan. American Serengeti: The Last Big Animals of the Great Plains. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2016.

Flores, Dan. Caprock Canyonlands: Journeys into the Heart of the Southern Plains. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1990.

Flores, Dan. Horizontal Yellow: Nature and History in the Near Southwest. [Essays.] Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1999.

Flores, Dan. The Natural West: Environmental History in the Great Plains and Rocky Mountains. [Essays.] Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2001.

Fradkin, Philip L. Wildest Alaska: Journeys of Great Peril in Lituya Bay. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001.

Francaviglia, Richard V. The Cast Iron Forest: A Natural and Cultural History of the North American Cross Timbers. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2000.

Haycox, Stephen W. Battleground Alaska: Fighting Federal Power in America's Last Wilderness. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2016.

Haycox, Stephen. Frigid Embrace: Politics, Economics, and Environment in Alaska. Culture and the Environment in the Pacific West Series. Corvallis: Oregon State University Press, 2002.

Hultgren, John. Border Walls Gone Green: Nature and Anti-Immigrant Politics in America. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2015.

Hurt, R. Douglas. The Big Empty: The Great Plains in the Twentieth Century. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2011.

Kates, James. Planning a Wilderness: Regenerating the Great Lakes Cutover Region. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2001.

Klingle, Matthew W. Emerald City: An Environmental History of Seattle. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2007.

Langston, Nancy. Where Land and Water Meet: A Western Landscape Transformed. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2003.

LeCain, Timothy J. Mass Destruction: The Men and Giant Mines That Wired America and Scarred the Planet. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 2009.

Lockwood, Jeffrey Alan. Locust: The Devastating Rise and Mysterious Disappearance of the Insect That Shaped the American Frontier. New York: Basic Books, 2004.

Logan, Michael F. Desert Cities: The Environmental History of Phoenix and Tucson. Pittsburgh, Pa: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2006.

Malin, James. History and Ecology: Studies of the Grassland. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1984.

Mergen, Bernard. At Pyramid Lake. Reno: University of Nevada Press, 2014.

Merrill, Karen R. Public Lands and Political Meaning: Ranchers, the Government, and the Property Between Them. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002.

Miller, Char, ed. On the Border: An Environmental History of San Antonio. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2001.

Montoya, Maria E. Translating Property: The Maxwell Land Grant and the Conflict over Land in the American West, 1840-1900. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002.

Morse, Kathryn. The Nature of Gold: An Environmental History of the Klondike Gold Rush. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2003.

Robbins, William G. Landscapes of Conflict: The Oregon Story, 1940-2000. Weyerhaeuser Environmental Books Series. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2004.

Robinson, Michael J. Predatory Bureaucracy: The Extermination of Wolves and the Transformation of the West. Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2005.

Ross, Ken. Environmental Conflict in Alaska. Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2000.

Sayre, Nathan F. Ranching, Endangered Species, and Urbanization in the Southwest: Species of Capital. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2002.

Sherow, James E., ed. A Sense of the American West: An Anthology of Environmental History. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press,1998.

Skillen, James. The Nation's Largest Landlord: The Bureau of Land Management in the American West. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2009.

Smith, Sherry L., ed. The Future of the Southern Plains. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2003.

Solnit, Rebecca. Savage Dreams: A Journey into the Hidden Wars of the American West. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1994.

Strom, Claire. Profiting from the Plains: The Great Northern Railway and Corporate Development of the American West. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2003.

Webb, Walter Prescott. The Great Plains. New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1931.

West, Elliott. The Way to the West: Essays on the Central Plains. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1995.

West, Elliott. The Contested Plains: Indians, Goldseekers, & the Rush to Colorado. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2000.

Wilshire, Howard Gordon, Jane E. Nielson, and Richard W. Hazlett. The American West at Risk: Science, Myths, and Politics of Land Abuse and Recovery. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Worster, Donald. Dust Bowl: The Southern Plains in the 1930s. New York: Oxford University Press, 1979

Worster, Donald. Under Western Skies: Nature and History in the American West. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Wyckoff, William. Creating Colorado: The Making of a Western American Landscape, 1860-1940. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999.

CALIFORNIA

Alagona, Peter S. After the Grizzly: Endangered Species and the Politics of Place in California. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013.

Andrés, Benny J., Jr. Power and Control in the Imperial Valley: Nature, Agribusiness, and Workers on the California Borderland, 1900-1940. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2015.

Farmer, Jared. Trees in Paradise: A California History. New York: Norton, 2013.

Igler, David. Industrial Cowboys: Miller & Lux and the Transformation of the Far West, 1850-1920. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001.

Isenberg, Andrew C. Mining California: An Ecological History. New York: Hill & Wang, 2005.

Pincetl, Stephanie S. Transforming California: A Political History of Land Use and Development. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.

Sackman, Douglas Cazaux. Orange Empire: California and the Fruits of Eden. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005.

Stoll, Steven. The Fruits of Natural Advantage: Making the Industrial Countryside in California. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998.

Tsu, Cecilia M. Garden of the World: Asian Immigrants and the Making of Agriculture in California's Santa Clara Valley. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.

OCEANS

Bolster, W. Jeffrey. The Mortal Sea: Fishing the Atlantic in the Age of Sail. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2012.

Cushman, Gregory T. Guano and the Opening of the Pacific World: A Global Ecological History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013.

Dorsey, Kurkpatrick. Whales and Nations Environmental Diplomacy on the High Seas. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2013.

Howe, Joshua P. Behind the Curve: Science and the Politics of Global Warming. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2014.

Igler, David. The Great Ocean: Pacific Worlds from Captain Cook to the Gold Rush. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.

Biography

Note: Biographies marked with an asterisk (*) are appropriate for the HIST 3327 or HIST 4398 book review assignments. The biographies not so marked are not appropriate to those assignments.

Anderson, Larry. Benton MacKaye, Creator of the Appalachian Trail. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002.

Austin, Mary Hunter. Earth Horizon: Autobiography. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1991.

*Brinkley, Douglas. The Wilderness Warrior: Theodore Roosevelt and the Crusade for America. New York: HarperCollins, 2009.

Christofferson, Bill. The Man from Clear Lake: Earth Day Founder Gaylord Nelson. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2004.

*Cohen, Michael P. The Pathless Way: John Muir and American Wilderness. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1984.

Coleman, Kate. The Secret Wars of Judi Bari: A Car Bomb, the Fight for the Redwoods, and the End of Earth First! San Francisco: Encounter Books, 2005.

Croker, Robert A. Stephen Forbes and the Rise of American Ecology. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2001.

Davis, Frederick Rowe. The Man Who Saved Sea Turtles: Archie Carr and the Origins of Conservation Biology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.

Dehler, Gregory J. The Most Defiant Devil: William Temple Hornaday and His Controversial Crusade to Save American Wildlife. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2013.

Drummond, Alexander. Enos Mills: Citizen of Nature. Nivot: University Press of Colorado, 1995.

Eaton, Heather, ed. Intellectual Journey of Thomas Berry: Imagining the Earth Community. Lanham, Md.: Lexington Books, 2015.

Egan, Michael. Barry Commoner and the Science of Survival: The Remaking of American Environmentalism. Cambridge: MIT, 2007.

Fein, A. Frederick Law Olmsted and the American Environmental Tradition. New York, 1972.

*Flader, Susan. Thinking Like a Mountain: Aldo Leopold and the Evolution of an Ecological Attitude Toward Deer, Wolves, and Forests. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1974.

Flippen, J. Brooks. Conservative Conservationist: Russell E. Train and the Emergence of American Environmentalism. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2006.

Zaslowsky, Dyan. Rosalie Edge, Hawk of Mercy: The Activist Who Saved Nature from the Conservationists. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2009.

Hamilton, Alice. Exploring the Dangerous Trades: The Autobiography of Alice Hamilton, M.D. Boston: Little, Brown, 1943.

Hart, John. Legacy: Portraits of 50 Bay Area Environmental Elders. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005.

Harvey, Mark. Wilderness Forever: Howard Zahniser and the Path to the Wilderness Act. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2005.

Hersey, Mark D. My Work Is That of Conservation: An Environmental Biography of George Washington Carver. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2011.

*Hausdoerffer, John. Catlin's Lament: Indians, Manifest Destiny, and the Ethics of Nature. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2009.

*Holmes, Steven J. The Young John Muir: An Environmental Biography. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1999.

Knight, Richard L., and Suzanne Riedel, eds. Aldo Leopold and the Ecological Conscience. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Lear, Linda J. Rachel Carson: Witness for Nature. New York: Henry Holt, 1997.

Lendt, David L. Ding: The Life of Jay Norwood Darling. Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1979.

Lowenthal, David. George Perkins Marsh, Prophet of Conservation. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2000.

Margolis, John D. Joseph Wood Krutch: A Writer's Life. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1980.

Mark, Stephen R. Preserving the Living Past: John C. Merriam's Legacy in the State and National Parks. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005.

McGeary, M. Nelson. Gifford Pinchot, Forester-Politician. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1960.

McPhee, John A. Encounters with the Archdruid. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1971.

Meine, Curt. Aldo Leopold: His Life and Work. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1988.

Merchant, Carolyn. Spare the Birds! George Bird Grinnell and the First Audubon Society. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2016.

*Miller, Char. Gifford Pinchot and the Making of Modern Environmentalism. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 2001.

Miller, Sally M., and Daryl Morrison, eds. John Muir: Family, Friends, and Adventures. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2005.

Muir, John. The Story of My Boyhood and Youth. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1913.

Muir, John. John Muir's Last Journey: South to the Amazon and East to Africa: Unpublished Journals and Selected Correspondence. Michael P. Branch, ed. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 2001.

Mullholland, Catherine. William Mulholland and the Rise of Los Angeles. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000.

Newton, Julianne Lutz. Aldo Leopold's Odyssey: Rediscovering the Author of A Sand County Almanac. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 2006.

Peters, Jason, ed. Wendell Berry: Life and Work. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2007.

Pinchot, Gifford. Breaking New Ground. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, [1998] 1947.

Pinchot, Gifford. The Conservation Diaries of Gifford Pinchot. Harold K. Steen, ed. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 2001.

Powell, John Wesley. Seeing Things Whole: The Essential John Wesley Powell. William DeBuys, ed. Covelo, CA: Island Press, 2001.

Renehan, Edward. John Burroughs: An American Naturalist. Post Mills, Vt.: Chelsea Green, 1992.

Richardson, Robert D. Henry Thoreau: A Life of the Mind. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986.

Roper, Laura Wood. FLO: A Biography of Frederick Law Olmsted. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1973.

Rybczynsky, Witold. A Clearing in the Distance: Frederick Law Olmsted and America in the Nineteenth Century. New York: Scribner, 1999.

*Schulte, Steven C. Wayne Aspinall and the Shaping of the American West. Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2002.

Schuyler, David. Apostle of Taste: Andrew Jackson Downing, 1815-1852. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996.

Sideris, Lisa H., and Kathleen Dean Moore, eds. Rachel Carson: Legacy and Challenge. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2008.

*Slaughter, Thomas P. The Natures of John and William Bartram. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1996.

Smith, Thomas G. Green Republican: John Saylor and the Preservation of America's Wilderness. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2006.

Sowards, Adam M. The Environmental Justice: William O. Douglas and American Conservation. Corvallis: Oregon State University Press, 2009.

Spiro, Jonathan Peter. Defending the Master Race: Conservation, Eugenics, and the Legacy of Madison Grant. Burlington: University of Vermont Press, 2009.

Steen, Harold K. The Conservation Diaries of Gifford Pinchot. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 2001.

Thomas, Jack Ward, and Harold K. Steen. Jack Ward Thomas: The Journals of a Forest Service Chief. Durham, N.C.: Forest History Society, 2004.

Train, Russell E. Politics, Pollution, and Pandas: An Environmental Memoir. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 2003.

Turner, Frederick W. Rediscovering America: John Muir in his time and ours. New York: Viking, 1985.

Wayburn, Edgar. Your Land and Mine: The Evolution of a Conservationist. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 2004.

Williams, Dennis. God's Wilds: John Muir's Vision of Nature. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2002.

Wolfe, Linnie Marsh. Son of the Wilderness: The Life of John Muir. New York: Knopf, 1945.

Worster, Donald. A River Running West: The Life of John Wesley Powell. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

History of Ecology

Acot, Pascal. Histoire de L'écologie. Paris: Presses universitaires de France, 1994. (Earlier edition published 1988.)

Beidleman, Richard G. California's Frontier Naturalists. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006.

Croker, Robert A. Stephen Forbes and the Rise of American Ecology. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2001.

De Bont, Raf. Stations in the Field: A History of Place-Based Animal Research, 1870-1930. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2015.

Drouin, Jean-Marc. L'Ecologie et Son Histoire: Réinventer la Nature. Paris: Flammarion, 1993. (Earlier edition published as Réinventer la Nature: L'Ecologie et Son Histoire, 1991.)

Hagen, Joel B. An Entangled Bank: The Origins of Ecosystem Ecology. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1992.

Kingsland, Sharon E. The Evolution of American Ecology, 1890-2000. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005.

Kohler, Robert E. All Creatures: Naturalists, Collectors, and Biodiversity, 1850-1950. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006.

Lookingbill, Brad D. Dust Bowl, USA : Depression America and the Ecological Imagination, 1929-1941. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2001.

McIntosh, Robert P. The Background of Ecology: Concept and Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.

Mitman, Gregg. The State of Nature: Ecology, Community, and American Social Thought, 1900-1950. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.

Tobey, Ronald C. Saving the Prairies: The Life Cycle of the Founding School of American Plant Ecology, 1895–1955. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981.

Way, Albert G. Conserving Southern Longleaf: Herbert Stoddard and the Rise of Ecological Land Management. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2011.

Worster, Donald. Nature's Economy: A History of Ecological Ideas. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

History of Ideas about Nature

Armitage, Kevin C. The Nature Study Movement: The Forgotten Popularizer of America's Conservation Ethic. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2009.

Bousé, Derek. Wildlife Films. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000.

Barrow, Mark V. Nature's Ghosts: Confronting Extinction from the Age of Jefferson to the Age of Ecology. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2009.

Bryson, Michael A. Visions of the Land Science, Literature, and the American Environment from the Era of Exploration to the Age of Ecology. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2002.

Coates, Peter. American Perceptions of Immigrant and Invasive Species: Strangers on the Land. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007.

Cronon, William, ed. Uncommon Ground: Toward Reinventing Nature. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1995.

Dann, Kevin. Across the Great Border Fault: The Naturalist Myth in America. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 2000.

De Steiguer, Joseph Edward. The Origins of Modern Environmental Thought. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2006.

Dugatkin, Lee Alan. Mr. Jefferson and the Giant Moose: Natural History in Early America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009.

Evernden, Lorne Leslie Neil. The Social Creation of Nature. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992.

Farber, Paul Lawrence. Finding Order in Nature: The Naturalist Tradition from Linnaeus to E. O. Wilson. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000.

Farmer, Jared. On Zion's Mount: Mormons, Indians, and the American Landscape

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