Attitude And Perception Essay

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Motivation is the driving force within individuals that impels them to action. This driving force is produced by a state of uncomfortable tension, which exists as the result of an unsatisfied need. Al1 individuals have needs, wants, and desires. The individual's subconscious drive to reduce need-induced tensions results in behavior that he or she anticipates will satisfy needs and thus bring about a more comfortable internal state.

All behavior is goal oriented. Goals are the sought, after results of motivated behavior. The form or direction that behavior takes-the goal that is selected-is a result of thinking processes (cognition) and previous learning (example: experience). There are two types of goals: generic goals and…show more content…

Personality can be described as the psychological characteristics that both determine and reflect how a person responds to his or her environment. Although personality tends to be consistent and enduring, it may change abruptly in response to major life events, as well as gradually over time.
Three theories of personality are prominent in the study of consumer behavior: psychoanalytic theory, neo-Freudian theory, and trait theory. Freud’s psychoanalytic theory provides the foundation for the study of motivational research, which operates on the premise that human drives are largely unconscious in nature and serve to motivate many consumer actions. Neo-Freudian theory tends to emphasize the fundamental role of social relationships in the formation and development of personality, Alfred Adler viewed human beings as seeking to overcome feelings of inferiority. Harry Slack Sullivan believed that people attempt to establish significant and rewarding relationships with others. Karen Homey saw individuals as trying to overcome feelings of anxiety and categorized them as compliant, aggressive, or detached.
Trait theory is a major departure from the qualitative (or subjective) approach to personality measurement. Il postulates that individuals possess innate psychological traits (example: innovativeness, novelty seeking, need

Female high school students' attitude and perceptions toward the social studies discipline

Ralph David Protano, Fordham University


The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the attitudes and perceptions of parochial high school female students toward their high school social studies courses. It described what factors shaped those attitudes, the effects of certain teaching methodologies on students' attitudes, and the attitudinal differences between 10th-grade and 12th-grade female students. A descriptive research design was utilized for this study since the purpose of this research was to yield descriptive knowledge of population parameters and relationships among those parameters. This design was chosen since it was concerned with relationships between participants and the attitudes and perceptions that are held by them. The type of descriptive research which was used to ascertain student attitudes was survey research in the form of student questionnaires. In addition, interview data were triangulated with each interviewee's survey results in order to better understand the results of these student participants' attitudes and perceptions toward social studies. ^ Several conclusions were drawn from the analysis of the data, including the following: (a) female student respondents displayed positive attitudes toward social studies as a subject area; (b) female students had positive attitudes and perceptions toward social studies due to content which was culturally oriented and has greater application to the daily lives of students, discussion-type classes, combination-type tests with only one essay, and the assigning of research projects; (c) female students had negative attitudes and perceptions toward social studies content that is not culturally oriented, the use of teaching that is largely lecture, the use of oral reports, and essay only type tests. ^ Further research is needed on attitudes students have toward social studies when students are compared on the basis of gender, race, ethnicity, and religion. Furthermore, continued investigation into gender bias of social studies textbooks and resource materials would be timely research since historical truth is being ignored by authors and publishers when their textbooks are silent on the identities, function, relevance, and accomplishments of women, resulting in the miseducation of both male and female students. ^

Subject Area

Education, Secondary|Education, Social Sciences|Education, Curriculum and Instruction

Recommended Citation

Protano, Ralph David, "Female high school students' attitude and perceptions toward the social studies discipline" (2003). ETD Collection for Fordham University. AAI3101156.


Since August 24, 2007


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