Mhra Bibliography Newspaper

MHRA requires that Primary sources and Secondary sources are listed separately in the bibliography.

Primary sources are original materials. These can include newspaper articles, letters, memoirs, autobiographies, speeches, diaries, images, government records etc.

NOTE: Primary sources need to be alphabetically listed separately from secondary sources in your bibliography.

Examples:

First footnote:
Fulbert of Chartres, The Letters and Poems of Fulbert of Chartres, ed. by Frederick Behrends (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976), pp. 100-03 (p.102).

Bibliography:
Fulbert of Chartres, The Letters and Poems of Fulbert of Chartres, ed. by Frederick Behrends (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976)

Secondary sources cite, comment on, or build upon primary sources.

NOTE: Secondary sources need to be alphabetically listed separately from primary sources in your bibliography.

Examples:

First Footnote:
Bonnie Wheeler, Listening to Heloise: The Voice of a Twelfth- Century Woman (New York: St. Martin's Press, 2000), p. 64.

Bibliography:
Wheeler, Bonnie, Listening to Heloise: The Voice of a Twelfth-Century Woman (New York: St. Martin's Press, 2000)

Writing about something newsworthy? Then you might need to reference a newspaper at some point. However, like most referencing systems, MHRA has some special rules for how to cite newspapers.

Follow these guidelines, though, and you can be confident your work is error free.

Footnote Citations

MHRA uses footnote citations, which are indicated using superscript numbers:

Usually at the end of a sentence, like this.1

For newspapers, the footnote on the first citation of a print article should include the following:

n. Author Name(s), ‘Article Title’, Newspaper Title, Date of Publication, Newspaper Section (if applicable), Page Number(s).

In practice, then, a citation of an article from the ‘G2’ section of the Guardian would look like this:

1. Stuart Heritage, ‘All British PMs End Up Failures – It’s Time for a Two-Term Limit Like the US’, Guardian, 25 October 2017, G2, p. 13.

For online newspaper articles, a URL should be given instead of page numbers. For instance:

2. Jon Sharman, ‘Drunken Australian Tourist Claims She Doesn’t Remember Zombie Bike Ride Attack on Pensioner’, Independent, 25 October 2017, < http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/drunk-tourist-zombie-bike-ride-attack-florida-keys-key-west-australian-prue-harvey-linda-malcolm-a8018851.html> [Accessed 17 November 2017].

Note that we’ve also included a date of access. This is required for all online sources in MHRA.

Repeat Citations

If you cite the same article again after the first citation, you can use a shortened format to save space. Use ‘ibid.’ for consecutive citations of the same source; for non-consecutive citations, all you need to do is give the author’s surname and relevant page numbers:

1. Stuart Heritage, ‘All British PMs End Up Failures – It’s Time for a Two-Term Limit Like the US’, Guardian, 25 October 2017, G2, p. 13.
2. Jon Sharman, ‘Drunken Australian Tourist Claims She Doesn’t Remember Zombie Bike Ride Attack on Pensioner’, Independent, 25 October 2017, < http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/drunk-tourist-zombie-bike-ride-attack-florida-keys-key-west-australian-prue-harvey-linda-malcolm-a8018851.html> [Accessed 17 November 2017].
3. Ibid.
4. Heritage, p. 14.

In the above, for instance, footnote three is a repeat citation of the Sharman source. And footnote four returns to the Stuart Heritage article. If you’re citing more than one source by the same author, however, make sure to include a shortened title in repeat citations, too.

Bibliography

In MHRA, the bibliography entry for a newspaper article is similar to the first footnote. However, the author’s names should be reversed so entries can be sorted by author surname. In addition, there is no full stop at the end of the entry, and you don’t need to use ‘p.’ or ‘pp.’ before page numbers:

Author Surname, First Name(s), ‘Article Title’, Newspaper Title, Date of Publication, Newspaper Section (if applicable), Page Range

If the article is spread across several pages, you should give the complete page range:

Heritage, Stuart, ‘All British PMs End Up Failures – It’s Time for a Two-Term Limit Like the US’, Guardian, 25 October 2017, G2, 13-14

And for online newspapers, the URL and date of access are required here, too:

Sharman, Jon, ‘Drunken Australian Tourist Claims She Doesn’t Remember Zombie Bike Ride Attack on Pensioner’, Independent, 25 October 2017, < http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/drunk-tourist-zombie-bike-ride-attack-florida-keys-key-west-australian-prue-harvey-linda-malcolm-a8018851.html> [Accessed 17 November 2017]

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